Major Computer Components with Images and their Functions

Essential Components of a Computer

We use the computer desktop’s and laptops every day to fulfill our several tasks, but do you know how the computer is made? What are the major computer components that make a machine usable to you?

Yes, a computer is a combination of many hardware’s and software’s. A combination of hardware parts makes a machine called computer and software’s help it be functional.

History of Computers

The first computing device was invented by Charles Babbage, also known as “father of the computer”. He comes with the concept of a programmable computer in early 19th century.

As per the internet research, initially, the computer rises as “compute” machine wherein compute mean “calculate”.

Now days, many people say that the full form of COMPUTER is “Common Operating Machine Purposely Used for Technological and Educational Research”.

But in reality, it is just a myth because when the computer was invented it was invented as an electronic device which is used for fast calculations.

Major Computer Components and their Functions

Although, there are many hardware parts required for a computer, the major parts which are most important to assemble a computer are below with their functions and short description which makes you understand in a better way.

The rest of the hardware parts are called computer input and output devices.

[Read: List of Computer Related Input Output Devices]

SMPS (Switched-Mode Power Supply)

SMPS stands for switched-mode power supply, also known as power supply and switch-mode power supply. It plays a major role in computer hardware parts.

SMPS is an electronic device and a power source of the whole computer.

The main and important role of an SMPS is to convert or transmit AC voltage (alternating current) to DC voltage (direct current) and provide electrical power efficiency to motherboard components according to their requirement.

SMPS (switched-mode power supply) is also a major computer components


The computer motherboard is also known as the main circuit board.

It is an important part or component which allows and plays a major role of communication between the CPU (central processing unit) and RAM (Random Access Memory) along with many other chips embedded in it such as video card, sound card, network card, USB, etc.

MotherboardCPU (Central Processing Unit)

The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is another of the major computer components of hardware assembly.

Yes, you might hear about the computer processor, it is called the CPU. Also known as the brain of a computer.

What does a CPU do?

The main operation of a CPU is to fetch the data and decode it, then, finally execute the command sent by a program or user.

Most probably, every command sent by a user has gone through the CPU. However, all instructions to be executed and kept in computer memory (RAM).

CPU is a major computer components

RAM (Random-Access Memory)

Random-access memory, also known as computer memory, is mostly used to store short-term data. RAM temporarily stores information in your system that you may need right now or in the near future.

In simple words, RAM stores the data in which you are currently working on so you would have a quick access of what you are looking into the computer right now.

There are many types of RAM since developed such as DRAM (dynamic random-access memory), SDRAM (single data RAM), DDR (double data rate), DDR2, DDR3 & DDR4 till now.

[Read: How to Check RAM Type in Your System?]

RAM (Random Access Memory)

Hard Disk Drive (HDD)

Basically, a hard disk drive, also known as a hard drive or hard disk, is an electro-mechanical data storage device that stores data in a digital form.

It is also called a main storage device in a computer system which helps to read and write the data. The HDD has one or more of the Platters and data is written to the platters.

[Read: Check Drive Type in Windows. Is it HDD or SSD?]

hard disk drive HDD

Since Hard drives were invented, there are four types as below:

  • PATA (Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment)
  • SATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment)
  • SCSI (Small Computer System Interface)
  • SSD (Solid State Drives)
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